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Ibn Wahshiyya: Filahat al- Nabatiyyah (Nabatean agriculture) (904) Kufa in Iraq


Taken from: -The last pagans of Iraq: Ibn Wahshiyya and his Nabatean agriculture by Jaakko Hameen-Anttila, Ahmad ibn Ali Ibn Wahshiyah



The page shows the entry on ebony لابنوس from the abreviated version made by Ibn al Raqqam


 The book mentions Misr, bilad al Waqwaq, Bilad al Zanj, bilad al Arab and Uman on p 351 and also on p 1280: az-Zanj; Kalah….





In the land of al-Bakiyan there is a tree which Illuminates its surroundings like a lamp, so that the nocturnal traveller does not need any additional lights. In the neighborhood there is a major island, like the islands of Ceylon, Kalah, az-Zanj and other such large islands (p355)


Taken from: Al Waraq


As the river Nile of Egypt runs from Abyssinia to Egypt, coming out of the mountains behind the country of Sudan, who are called the Mountains of the Moon,


As for the climats, which tells about the people they grow certain things do not grow in other than Earth, such as the al-balsam plant in the land of Egypt and the plants of Ebony in the land of alwaqwaq and the plants of wood called al-Zanjy (Negro) in the country of Zinj and banana trees and cactus in the land of the Arabs and the other …


…… especially, so it is different in weight and lightness, ……. Though heavy, light and cold, ebony, olives, walnuts, ……


And fruits in trees that we do not know

We do not grow like them.

As well as in the Serenadeb and in the islands in the sea

And other countries.

We are informed that the Bal-zang

All of it and also Kashmir

Trees are planted bearing

Fruits describe to us as we have known

But we do not know what it looks like on the other hand


And unknown regions that are not talked about like China at the end, India and Sindh and Kathar and Bulgarians and Sakhar and Alagafjan and Sarat and Qumr and the country Al Takrur and Abyssinia and Nubia and Al Bejah and Zinj and to Aswan, Hadramout, Bahrain and so on.


Taken from: Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science: Technology, alchemy ..., Volume 3 By Rushdi Rashid,


The orach (sarmaq): horticultural and wild (qataf): description; properties; widespread in Ethiopia, Nubia and Sudan; consumed by the Negroes despite its bad smell.



Ibn Wahshiya; Kitab as-sumum (Book of Poison) (900AD)


Taken from: Medieval Arabic toxicology: The book on poisons of Ibn Wahshiya and its ... By Aḥmad ibn ʻAli Ibn Wahshiyah,

Martin Levey


Preparation of Necklaces like Stone. When a Man sees it he dies on the Spot


…………………Knead them well and make of it a half sphere, one side flat and the other surface convex. Smooth it well and

polish it until it appears like the best smooth stone. Since some of the blood which was used in this operation is left over and

will not be needed again, it is dried, pounded, and mixed well with the remedies. Make the stone in the shape that I described

to you. Leave it to dry as I ordered.When it is dry and wholly fashioned, take a little each of minium, and reboudia microcarpa

coss.,195 and mix them well with the urine of a camel. Put vine leaf on your palm; on it put the hemisphere. Spot it with a quill

pen until it is. Moisten it with the quill pen which has been wetted with camel’s urine. On the flat side, draw a figure of a cross;

in each angle formed by the cross, put three spots. Leave it exposed to the air until the spots on it are well dried. Put on it any

leaf and a sheet of paper made in the country of Sacad.188 Take four ratls of a man’s urine which has been weighed on a

balance. Pour the urine in an earthenware container which has been smeared with sesame oil three times.

Take equal amounts of verdigris, table salt, ashes of walnut rinds pounded reed charcoal, saruq which is bat urine, dove

[droppings], dung of sheep, bovine manure, and hairs of Negroes, two dirhams each of tamarisk fruit, pepper seed, camel

dung, gum ammoniac, and seeds of the mahaleb and black pepper, white pottery ………