On top the most famous zebra from India. left the original painting; the others are early day copies.

The zebra in this painting was presented to the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-1627) by Mir Ja'far who had acquired it from some Turks who had travelled to India from Africa. Jahangir wrote on the painting (in Persian, the court language) that it was: A mule which the Turks in the company of Mir Ja'far had brought from Abyssinia in the year 1030 [1620-21], completed by Nader al-Asri [Wonder of the Age], Ustad Mansur.

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Jnatadharmakatha Suryaprajnapti (Jaina text) written down in Vallabhi after 980

under the guidance of Devardhigani Ksamasrama.

Taken from: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, by Monti Chandra

                  Economic life in ancient India as depicted in Jain canonical literature Dinendra Chandra Jain


Once the traders of the town known as Hastisirsa went out in the ocean far and wide for trading purpose. After sailing for thousands of miles, a cyclone started and the ship began shaking badly. The danger was so great that the pilot did not know what to do and in confusion almost forgot his knowledge of navigation and lost the right direction. In order to escape from this peril the pilot, the helmsman and the sailors, after taking bath, began offering prayers to Indra and Skanda. The gods fortunately heard their prayer and the pilot reached safely to Kaliyadvipa where his ship cast anchor..  and took small boats to reach on the shore of Kalika Dvipa. The traders found mines of silver, gold and precious stones such as diamond and other jewels. They also saw peculiar kinds of horses with yellow colour and striped body (Zebra) who fled away on the sight and smell of these traders. The traders let them go. The strong scent of the aromatics almost drowned their senses.  They filled up their boats with silver, gold and other precious materials and returned back safely to their home town. They presented the articles to their king, Kanakaketu. When the king asked them what strange places they had seen during their voyage, they at once named Kaliyadvipa and gave a description of the island mentioning the prevalence of peculiar horses (Zebra) in the country. The king became curious about the horses and asked the traders to go to Kalika Dvipa again and bring the peculiar horses with them. The traders agreed to comply the order of the king and started making arrangements for the onward journey. The traders took varied types of commodities with them for trading purpose. They loaded their vehicles with various types of musical instruments e.g. stringed instruments like bheri (bhambhana), wooden toys of different colours and designs (kattha kamma), writing materials (pottha kamma), painting of many kinds (citta kamma), ornaments, jewels, perfumes, spices, oils, cardamom, garlands (granthim) and many articles of artistic designs. Some of them took guda, khanda, sugar (Sakkara) and sugar candy (macchandiya) of various types for trading. Other packed up cotton, silk and woollen cloths and specialities of Gambhira and loaded the trade commodities on the sailing ship. Some jewellers took with them precious stones for sale. The ship was also loaded with rice. They also took sufficient quantity of eatables and drinking water for sea journey. After the arrangements were complete, their ship sailed in the ocean and with the aid of favourable winds, reached Kiliya Dvipa in course of time. The ship was anchored there, unloaded and materials were brought on the shore by small boats. The traders went to the island with their commodities and chalked out strategy to trap the peculiar horses. They used the musical instruments, food materials perfumery, etc. to attract them. They dug pits   and covered them with cloths and grasses. After laying the trap, they silently watched their movements. Some of the zebras did not come in the trap while others who were attracted towards food and perfumes, were caught and tied with ropes. They were loaded on the boats and then to the ship and brought before the king, Kanakaketu of Hastisirsa through the port of Gambhira (Gambhirapoyavahana-pattana). The king was very much pleased with the traders and permitted them to trade in his kingdom without paying any tax. They were also honoured by the king and were presented cloths and other articles.

Note: Gambhira is supposed to have been in Gujarat. Out of other Indian sources we know that it was visited by ships from Champa in Vietnam and might well have been the way trough which Africa was reached from Indonesia