Top:  a terracotta figure of a Kunlun from the Tang Dynasty 618-907 (27.5cmH)


Right: A Kunlun dancer found in a tomb in Asitana, Xinjiang

Back to Table of Contents2
To next page
Liu Xu : (940) Jiu Tang Shu
(Old History of the Tang Dynasty)

Taken from: 舊唐書/198 - 维基文库自由的图书馆
Also called : Chiu Tang shu

Jiu Tang Shu
Referring to a lion dance, the Old Tang Dynastic History notes that the man who leads the dance "has the appearance of a native from Kunlun" (an African slave)

 See also: Note on Kunlun people.


Yuan 197 Southern and Southwestern Barbarians (Nanman 南蠻, Xinanman 西南蠻)


Ha-ling (or Kalinga) country (Javanese nation) 訶陵國

………….. In the tenth year, (815 to the court of Hsing Tung) sends an envoy who offers 5 Seng-qi boys, a parrot, the pin-ga bird and the different specific valuables….. In the13th year (818), they send an envoy with 2 Seng-qi woman, a parrot, the hawk's-bill turtle and a live rhinoceros and so on.

See: Note to Zangi Slaves


Yuan 198 Western Barbarians (Xirong 西戎):

In the 9th month of 771, envoys from Persia presented real pearls and amber


Persia 波斯國

……………….. Climate is hot, wide land, knowledge of farming, animal husbandry, bird-shaped like a camel, can not fly high, herbivorous and meat, but also dare to grab sheep dogs, natives suffer that very much. And more white horse, jin dog, …, gold dog this dog is also called Persian dog. Local products: tall, white mules and tall donkeys, lions, white ivory, coral trees, amber, giant clams, agate, fire jewels, red transparent glass, opaque glass, gall nuts, cyperus root, Chebulae fructus, pepper, cubebs, stone honey, hard sugar, dates, sweet pears.


Fulin 拂菻國 (Byzantium)

…………….Its products are: Gold and silver objects, a luminous Jade, moon pearls, rhinoceros horn, big shells, …, agate, emeralds, coral, amber, in this land  the most exotic items are found more than from all other western barbarians.

Dashi 大食國

…………Its products are camels and horses.