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Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Ishaq as Sabbah al-Kindi:

Ristila Ii mulk al-arab wa kamiyyatihi

(letter on the rule of the Arabs and its duration) (d 873)


Taken from: On Historical Astrology: The Arabic original - Kitab al-milal wa-al-duwal

(The book of religions and dynasties) Abu Mashar, Keiji Yamamoto, Charles Burnett 2000


When the two malefics conjoin in Aries, it indicates a riot between the Byzantines and the Arabs, in Gemini and Cancer

between the people of Armenia and its borders, in Leo between the Turks and the Arabs, in Virgo among the Copts,

Nubians, and the Arabs, in Libra among the Byzantines themselves, is Scorpio among the Arabs themselves, in

Sagittarius among the Turks, in Capricorn between Ethiopia, Zang, and India, in Aquarius between as-Sawad, Kufa,

and al-Gibal, and in Pisces between the Egyptians, the Khazars, (the people of) the sea, and the Arabs.


Al-madd wa-'l-jazr; (On the cause of the tides)
Taken from: Sitzungsberichte, Volumes 44-45 Physikalisch-medicinische societät zu Erlangen 1913

                    History of Cartography. Second Part. Middle Ages. Juan Romero-Giron.


Juan Romero-Giron concludes in his work that the author of this book is unknown. It was written or copied in 1192 in Seville.

The manuscript is divided into 30 short chapters, which have a geographical and astronomical content to explain the cause of the tides and the rise of the rivers, with special dedication in chapters 25-29: the rise of the Nile. But chapter 24 has several maps. The chapter is titled: About what is said about the seas that come out of the ocean and what comes from the ebb and flow.


This great sea is opposed in the western region by another sea (Mediterranean Sea) that leaves the ocean in the western part of the country of Sudan, which ends in the vicinity of the Mountains of the Moon and in it are the mouth of the Nile of Egypt……


(About the Habashi sea) The flood is like that of the waters that lead the surplus of the rain, the melting snow, the springs, and the waters pouring into the sea, in gulfs, like those of Faris, and the Oceans. According to the description of the earth, which is given by the measurements and the representation of the earth, and on the basis of the astronomical (falaki) latitudes and lengths of their places, the length of this sea is 8,000 miles, and its breadth 2700 miles. It is under the sky's equator and begins from east to west, ....

…………The geography of the Earth has been drawn by means of two different images, of round and flat shape, so that the one who looks at them can see clearly the way the flow and reflux behave and its particularities with respect to the ocean and where it ends. monthly flow of these seas, where is the end of that sea and its limits .......

The text along the East African coast reads: End of inhabited territory.

 and to the south a longer text reads: This territory is not populated by excess heat.

In the half circle (at the sources of the Nile) is written: Mountains of the Moon.

Besides the rivers that come out of the Mountains of the Moon but flow to West Africa is written: Nile of Ethiopia.

Left a map of the Nile from this Manuscript (Manuscrito escurialense 1636-2). The half circles on top of the map represent the sources of the Nile.

The other map (on Fol. 114r) has the N pole at the centre of the circle. The largest of the concentric circles (the outer one) is the equator. Just right of the top of this map a half circle is popping out of the equator. These are the Mountains of the Moon. Inside it is visible a circle with in it (vague) 3 small circles. These are the lakes close to the sources of the Nile. And the Nile that flows from there to the Mediterranean is also visible.


Taken from: Ibn Khaldun, Mukaddima


Ya’kub ibn Ishak al Kindi said that (the behaviour) of the Zanj is due to the weakness of their brain, which causes a weakening of the intellect.


Aqrabadhin; (The medical formulary)

Taken from: The medical formulary, or Aqrābādhīn by Kindī, Süleymaniye Umumı̂ Kütüphanesi


For freckles. Al-Kindi says that they will be lightened by two or three applications of barmecide drug.

Ivory dust 1 part

Yellow fig seed 1 part

Red kidney bean 1 part

Mungo bean 1 part

Honey 1 part

These are moistened with barley water. It is daubed on the face and hands. If it is too thick, use one-half part of the drugs.

The freckles will disappear, with God's help.