As illustration only a map of the seven climes from Husayn al-Husayni Khalkhali (1605)



Muhammad b. Idris al-Shafi'i:

Umm al Kitab

(Mother of Books) (820)




Taken from: O ye gentlemen: Arabic studies on science and literary culture in honour of ..By Arnoud Vrolijk, J. P. Hogendijk



In this book the seven grades of Masukhiyya (downward reincarnation or transmigration) are compared with the
seven climes of the earth, going from the best clime to the most unhealthy, that is the one of the Zanj who have
black bodies, compact, fat and obscure, unchangeably rebellious.
Taken from: Revue des etudes islamiques Vol 6

The spirits who had revolted are returned as punishment into dust, stone, earth, water….

Then follows the history of the creation of the climates (by the spirits who are returned to dust) in their regular order:

Zang, India, Turkestan, China, Khorassan, Iraq, Egypt, and iqlimi haftum (?) The 12 naqibs created the

12 regions (kishwar): Sind, Hind, Tibet, Berber, Rus, Habash, Khazar, Turkistan, Bahrayn, Kuhistan,

Armina, Fars, Maghrib, Asqalan, and Rum. The 28 najibs erected 28 islands: Hind, Sind, Sarandib,

Ishandariyya, Qustantiniyya, Barqyus, Farghana, Andijan, Sawad, Mahin, Barqa, the Greek islands,

Gilan, Afriqa, Asqalan, Nasibin, Malatiya, Suud, Antakiya, Tartus, Kish, Umman, Kark, Maskat.